Analysis on factors of fabric fuzzing and pilling
With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, the requirements for clothing are not limited to warmth preservation, firmness and durability, but put forward new requirements for comfort, aesthetics and functionality. The fabric is easy to fuzz and pilling in wearing. This phenomenon not only makes the appearance and hand feel of the fabric worse, but also makes the fabric wear and reduce the wearing performance of the fabric.
The so-called fuzzing and pilling refers to that the fabric is constantly subjected to friction in the actual wearing and washing process, so that the fiber end on the fabric surface is exposed out of the fabric, and there are many annoying hairy antlers on the fabric surface, which is "fuzzing". If these hairy antlers cannot fall off in time when they continue to wear and use, they will entangle with each other and rub each other into small hairballs, which will become bigger and bigger. This is often called "pilling".
Relevant research shows that:
A. Cotton, hemp, silk and other natural fibers (except wool fabrics) have a small degree of fuzzing and pilling.
B. Common chemical fibers such as nylon, polyester, acrylic, polypropylene and regenerated cellulose fibers are easy to be extracted to form fuzzing and pilling.
C. The degree of fuzzing and pilling will be aggravated after the blending of chemical fiber and natural fiber.
Analysis of causes affecting fabric pilling:
1. The nature of fiber is the main reason for fabric fuzzing and pilling
(1) Fiber length
The length of fiber directly affects the fuzzing and pilling degree of fabric. The holding force and friction force between long fibers are relatively large, so the fibers are not easy to slide out to the surface; Moreover, for the yarn spun from long fibers, the number of fiber ends per unit length is less, and the fiber ends exposed to the fabric surface are naturally less, and the ends subject to friction are less. Therefore, compared with short fiber fabrics, long fiber fabrics are not easy to fuzz and pilling. On the contrary, short fiber fabrics are more prone to fuzzing and pilling.
(2) Linear density of fiber
The fiber thickness has a great influence on the fuzzing and pilling grade. The finer the fiber, the better the softness, but there are more broken ends exposed on its surface, which is easy to fuzz and pilling. On the contrary, coarse fiber fabrics are not easy to be rubbed and pilled. The coarser the fiber, the harder it is, and the fibers erected on the fabric surface are less likely to entangle and knead into balls.
(3) Crimp degree of fiber
The more the crimp wave shape of the fiber, the less easy the fiber is to stretch during twisting, and the fiber is easy to loosen and slip during friction, forming Plush on the yarn surface. Therefore, the better the crimp of the fiber, the easier it is to pilling
(4) Cross section shape of fiber
The fiber with special-shaped section has large bending stiffness, is not easy to bend and wind, and the probability of relative contact and friction is low. It is not easy to pull out and entangle, and is not easy to produce pilling.
(5) Mechanical properties of fiber
High strength fibers with good elasticity are not easy to break during friction. Even if the pilling ball is broken, it is not easy to fall off and easily entangle into larger pilling balls. For fibers with poor elasticity and low strength, the wool balls produced by friction are easier to fall off from the surface and difficult to form balls. General natural fiber fabrics, such as cotton and hemp, rarely produce pilling except wool fabrics; Viscose fiber, acetate fiber and other man-made fiber fabrics also rarely pilling; The fuzzing and pilling of chemical fiber fabrics are more obvious, among which nylon and polypropylene fabrics are the most serious.
2. Structure and shape of yarn, twist of yarn
The twist of the yarn is high, the holding between the fibers is close, and the surface of the yarn is smooth. When it is rubbed, it produces less hairiness, and the fiber is not easy to pull out, so it is not easy to pilling. Therefore, many polyester cotton yarn fabrics will increase the twist of yarn in production. Appropriately increasing the twist of yarn can reduce hairiness, improve yarn wear resistance, and reduce the fuzzing and pilling degree of fabric. However, we should not blindly increase the twist to reduce the fuzzing and pilling degree, because excessively increasing the twist will not only reduce the yarn strength, but also affect its feel and style.
3. Fabric structure
The fabric structure also has a great influence on the fuzzing and pilling of the fabric. Fabric with loose structure is easier to pilling than fabric with tight structure; Among plain, twill and satin fabrics, satin fabric has the most serious pilling and the lowest grade, followed by twill fabric. Plain fabric has a close structure between fibers and is less easy to pilling. Knitted fabrics are generally easier to pilling than woven fabrics. Weft knitted fabric is easier to pilling than rib knitted fabric. Fabrics with smooth surface are not easy to pilling, and fabrics with small needle pitch are not easy to pilling.
4. Finishing processing
Proper singeing and shearing treatment can avoid the fiber with sufficient length twisting into balls; You can also brush the fibers attached to the fabric surface that are easy to be extracted first by brushing, so that these excess fibers have no chance of pilling, which can appropriately reduce the phenomenon of pilling. Appropriate heat setting or resin finishing can be adopted for polyester cotton fabric to set the yarn, smooth the surface and reduce pilling
5. Factors used
Different functions or cleanliness of clothing also affect fuzzing and pilling. Generally speaking, in the process of use, frequently worn and dirty clothes are easy to pilling; The hygroscopicity of the fabric fiber is poor, so that the fabric is rubbed in a dry state for a long time, and it is easy to pilling; In short, the greater the friction the fabric is subjected to, the more serious the fuzzing and pilling phenomenon is.